Final updated results:
Nine participants completed HLGI and 8 completed positive journaling. Five participants dropped out (or fell out of contact) in the journaling condition and 1 in the HLGI condition (38% and 10%, respectively). Mean enrollment scores did not differ between participants who completed versus did not complete the study for the BDI II (completed M = 8.2, dropped M = 11.6, t(20) = 0.90, p = 0.38), FSS (completed M = 38.7, dropped M = 48.0, t(20) = 1.22, p = 0.24), MS-QOL- 54 physical composite (completed M = 53.3, dropped M = 49.0, t(19) = 0.47, p = 0.64), or MS-QOL- 54 mental composite (completed M = 69.8, dropped M = 64.3, t(19) = 0.61, p = 0.55).
Patients ranged in age from 33 to 69 years (M = 50.8 years, SD = 11.5) and age did not differ between groups (t(15) = 0.64, p = 0.53). Disease duration was 1-32 years (mean = 12.1, SD = 10.2) and did not differ between groups (t(14) = 0.45, p = 0.66).
HLGI led to significant improvements in each of the four study outcomes (see Figure 1). HLGI led to a 75% decrease in depressed mood scores (versus 15% decrease from journaling, F(1, 8.3) = 5.9, p = 0.04, generalized eta square = 0.34), a 24% decrease in fatigue scores (versus a 6% increase in fatigue, F(1, 15.3) = 11.1, p = 0.004, generalized eta square = 0.35), a 38% increase in physical quality of life scores (versus a 3% increase in physical quality of life, F(1, 14.2) = 8.7, p = 0.01, generalized eta square = 0.38), and a 30% increase in mental quality of life scores (versus 0% change, F(1, 14.4) = 9.8, p = 0.007, generalized eta square = 0.41).
Figure 1. Change in scores of MS patients from before to after HLGI or positive journaling for outcome measures fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II), and physical and mental quality of life (MS-QOL- 54 domain scores). HLGI was associated with reductions in depression (p = 0.05) and fatigue (p = 0.01) and increases in physical (p = 0.01) and mental (p = 0.01) quality of life. Error bars display SEM.
Four patients completed follow-up evaluation an additional 10 weeks after the completion of the intervention and initial outcome measures. Of the 3 HLGI patients who returned, 2 retained at least 80% of their improvement on the measures of depression and fatigue. Measures of quality of life showed mixed results.
HLGI poster presented at International Symposium for Contemplative Studies (ISCS) on Nov. 12, 2016
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